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    Awal ɣef uselkim sɣuṛ Y. At Yiɣil

    ANGAL (CODE) ASCII
    Aselkim ifehhem anagar tameslayt n uselkim (langage machine).
    Ameslay n uselkim d azrar n "0" d "1", d talγa timisint (forme binaire). Mi ara neẓreg (éditer) azamul (d asekkil neγ d amḍan..), azamul-a ad yettwasuqqel γer tmeslayt n uselkim ; yal azamul yellan γef unasiw (clavier), γur-s azal-is d angal (code).
    Gar wengalen yellan : ASCII, tanselfat (sigle) n (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), angal s tizeγt amarikan n usmeksel n tilγa.
    Anagalt-a d win n yemḍanen d yisekkilen d tecraḍ n usenqeḍ (signes de ponctuations) n tecraḍ nniḍen.
    Angal ASCII, deg-s 256 n wengalen. Tebḍa γef sin yeḥricen, yal aḥric deg-s 128.
    aselkim.gif
    1/ Angalen isluganen: (codes standards) :
    Seg 0 ar 31, d angalen n usenqed (contrôle) n taywalt (communication) d wayen yeɛnan tsaggazt (impimente). Ticraḍ n wengalen-a ur d-teffγent ara γef ugdil (écran), d ilem.
    Seg 32 ar 127, d angalen n tecraḍ n usenqeḍ d yemḍanen (0 ar 9) d yisekkilen imeqqranen, imeẓyanen n ugemmay Arumani. Ticraḍ n wengalen-a teffγent-d γef ugdil.

    2/ Angalen isakaken : (codes étendus) :
    Seg 128 ar 255, d tanaglin n wid i d-isnulfuyen iseγẓanen (les logiciels).

    TIMESLAYIN N USIHEL (Langages de programmation)
    Ma yili wugur gar yifassen-nneγ, tewwi-yas-d awarzem (algorithme) i tifrat-is. Awarzem d awalen (n tefransist, tegnizit ..) i yesseqdac wussnan (scientifique) i tifrat n wugur, maca aselkim (ordinateur), γur-s awalen-is imaẓlayen, agraw-nnsen d tameslayt n usihel (imeslayen i ifehhem uselkim), wid ara d-isnedhen aselkim ( d azrar n wanaḍen (instructions)) i tifrat. Gar tmeslayin-a:

    1/ FORTRAN:
    Awal-a d asewzel (FORmula TRANslation), tisuqqelt n tenfalit, acku awalen-is sehlen i useqdec n tusnakt (mathématique). Amezwaru i d-yuran fell-as d RUTISHAUSER, deg useggas 1952, maca ur d-yeffiγ ara i leqdic almi d useggas 1955, s γur JOHN BACKUS. Tameslayt-a telha nezzeh i yinekmaden ussananen n tesdawit.


    2/BASIC:
    D asewzel (Beginner's All prupose Symbolic Instruction Code). Yeffeγ-d deg useggas 1965. D tameslayt i d-yemmugen i wid urɛad ssnen nezzeh timeslayin n usihel, acku awalen n umeslay yettwaqdacen deg BASIC sehlen, ferzen. Yelha nezzeh i yinelmaden n tesnawit (aswir amenzu). S kra n wawalen, anelmad yezmer ad yektil: tajumma (surface), ableγ (volume), azikit (périmètre).atg, neγ ad ad d-yefru tigdiwin (équations).


    3/ PASCAL:
    Teffeγ-d ger useggas 1967 d 1971 sγur NIKLAUS WIRTH. Yefka-yas isem-ayi ilemen-d umussnaw ameqqran BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662). Tameslay PASCAL tettwassen aṭas seg wasmi i d-teffeγ i lγaci tameslayt n Turbo pascal deg useggas 1984, sγur Borland International, imi wwḍen azal n umeliyun i yettuzenzen seg-s.
    PASCAL daγen yemmug-d i tusnakt, yelha nezzeh i yinelmaden ussananen n tesdawit.


    4/ LANGAGE C:
    D tameslayt i d-ilulen deg useggas 1972, sγur umussnaw DENIS RITHIE. Deg tazwara, timeslayin-a mmugent-d i useqdec n uselkim ( ileḥḥun s UNIX); maca, deg useggas 1989, yuγ abrid n useqdec s wahil, yuγal am wid neẓra yakan.



    5/ DBASE:
    _ er taggara n yiseggasen 70, amussnaw WAYNE RATLIFF ( iqeddec di NASA), isnulfa-d timeslayen i useqdec n taffa n isefka (base de données), i wumi isemma VULCAN.
    Syin akkin, GEORGE TATE d HAL LASHLEE, gren-d afus, rnan sqewmen-t, armi d useggas 1981, yuγal isem-is dbase (data base).


    AWALEN N TMESLAYIN N USELKIM:
    Awalen-a zemren ad ilin, d wid n tegnizit mmden, neγ d asewzel n wawalen n tegnizit.

    Amedya:
    Wayi d ahil, s tmeslayin i neẓra, sendahen aselkim i wakken ad d-yaru γef ugdil (Ecran), awal (AZUL):

    FORTRAN

    Ahil amenzu
    WRITE(*,*)'AZUL'
    END 10 CLS


    BASIC
    20 REM Ahil amenzu
    30 PRINT " AZUL "
    40 END Program azul


    PASCAL
    Begin
    {ahil amenzu}
    WRITE('AZUL');
    END. MAIN()
    {


    C

    /*Ahil amenzu */
    PRINTF('AZUL')
    } CLEAR


    DBASE
    *Ahil amenzu*
    ? ' AZUL'
    END


    AMEZRUY N USELKIM:
    Aselkim amezwaru (premier calculateur), amarew (ancêtre) n uselkim, sugnen-t-id, suffγen-t-id, imussnawen : almani WILHELM SCHICKARD (1592-1635), afransi BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662) d ulmani GOETTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNITZ (1646-1716), deg lqern XII .
    « La pascaline », tamacint i d-yesnulfa Pascal, txeddem anagar timerniwt (addition), d usenqes (soustraction).
    Leibnitz, yerna-yas-d akfud (multiplication).
    _ er taggara n lqern XIX, afransi JOSEPH-MARIE JACQUARD (1752-1834), isnulfa-d azeṭṭa awurman (automatique), ileḥḥun s tkarḍiwin yeflan (cartes perforées).

    Deg 1880, amusdanen amarikani (statisticien), HAERMAN HOLLERITH (1860-1929), amarikan, yeddem-d tikarḍiwin yeflan, yerra-tent i useqdec n yisefka (données), mi zrin 16 yiseggasen isbedd-d (Tabulating Machine Corporation), yettwassnen ass-a s yisem IBM.
    Amusnak (mathématicien) agnizi CHARLES BABBAGE (1792-1871), yufa-d imenzayen (principes) n uselkim umḍin (calculateur numérique).
    Deg useggas 1939, JOHN ATANASOFF (1903-1995), d CIFFORD BERRY, snulfan-d di, IOWA COLLEGE STATE, aselkim amenzu. Aselkim-a teḥrez-it ddula, almi d useggas 1945, imi t-id seknen di tkerda (présentation) n ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). Aselkim-a deg-s 18000 n tegmamin tilmawin (tubes vides), yezmer ad yexdem imeyyaten n tmehlin (opérations) di ddqiqa.
    Deg yiwet n tallit, 1943, n ttrad umaḍal wis-sin, di Londre, tarbaɛt yimussnawen, isenemhel CLAUDE TURING, snulfan-d aselkim aliktrunan (éléctronique), COLOSSUS, deg-s 1500 tegmamin tilmawin. Aselkim-a sqedcen-t i wezmak (déchiffrer) n yiznan (messages) yilmaniyen.
    Iselkimen-a uγen isem n tsuta tamezwarut (1ere génération).
    Deg useggas 1952, ḍehren-d iselkimen imezwura, iqeddcen s wahil acfawan (programme memorisé), sγur umusnak amarikani JOHN VON NEUMANN (1903-1957).
    _ er taggara yiseggasen 1950, ffγen-d iselkimen n tsuta tis-snat (2ème génération), kksen tigmamin, rran izbuzen (transistors).
    _ er taggara n yiseggasen 1960, yennulfa-d amnenniḍ ummid (circuit integré), yezmer ad yaγ azal n waṭas n yizbuzen, deg teblaṭ n silisiyum (plaque de silicium).
    _ er tlemmast n yiseggasen 1970, yeffeγ-d usekkar (processeur), yezmer ad yaγ azal n luluf yezbuzen.
    Aselkim yettwassnen, mechuren di ddunit, d aselkim umḍin (ordinateur numérique), iseqdac tilγa s tengalt (codé). Yettarra-d isefka imrawanen (donnée décimal) γer isefka isinan (donnée binaire). Arured n uselkim yettwaḥsab s Hertz, aselkim n 10 Mega Hz, yezmer ad yexdem 10 imelyunen n temhalin i tasint (seconde).
    Afara (progrès) n uselkim macci d kra, arured-ines irennu, ssuma-s tneqqes-d, s 30%, γef useggas yezrin.
    Aγbel n yimussnawen ass-a, d rrbaḥa n lweqt d usemẓi n yiselkimen. Kkaten ad rren aṭas yimnenniḍen deg yiwen n ucerrun (puce).

    Tasenselkimt:
    Tasenselkimt, d tussna n usekker n tilγa (traitement d l'information), s talγa tawurmant (automatiquement). Tasenselkimt, tuγ azal meqqer di, tmugri (industrie) d tedbalt (administration).
    Tasenselkimt, tennulafa-d asmi d-ḍehren iselkimen imezwura, maca anagar almi d useggas 1950 i tuγ azal n tussna, imi amussnak amarikani NORBERT WIENER ( 1894-1964), isbedd-d lsas n usenwelleh (cybérnitique), rnu amusnak amarikani CLAUDE ELWOOD SHANNON (1916), yesnulfa-d tiẓri n yisalan (théorie de l'information).

    INTERNET : (entre-reseaux)
    D azeṭṭa n tesleγselkimt (télémathique).
    Intenet d azeṭṭa, ilul-d seg uzeṭṭa Arpanet, i d-yeffγen deg yiseggasen 1960, i usekker n temselta n Marikan. Deg yiseggasen 1970, Arpanet, yekcem γer tsesdawiyin ; almi yuγ amḍiq-is, deg useggas 1990, Internet.
    Internet, di tazwara, yemmud-d anagar i tegmi yimussnawen (recherche des scientifiques). Deg useggas 1991, yeffeγ-d World Wide Web, agrudem (interface), yessawḍen azeṭṭa ad d-yeldi
    i yal amdan di ddunit.
    Assa yal amdan yezmer ad yaweḍ γer yisefka, tugniwin ...atg. Internet, yuγ azal meqqer di tnezzut (commerce).
    Deg useggas 1995, azṭṭa-ayi, yeqqen azal n sin yimelyunen yiselkimen d qrib n 30 imelyunen n yemdanen deg 45 n tmura.

    WORLD WIDE WEB:
    D agrudem, i seqdacen deg Intenet. Anamek n wawal-a (Azeṭṭa n tisist agreγlan), agrudem yessawḍen ad yeldi azeṭṭa Internet i yal amdan.WWW neγ Web, yennerna-d deg useggas 1991, sγur umazzag (informaticien) agnizi TIMOTHY BERNERS-LEE (d amagmay di CERN, Genève). Deg tazwara, Web yeffeγ-d i wakken ad awḍent tilγa i yal amagmay di ddunit; maca yal aseggas llan wid i d-teqqnen γer uzeṭṭa Internet

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